Page 1 of 8 123 ... LastLast
Results 1 to 30 of 221

Thread: Schmallenberg Update

  1. #1
    Frank_the_Wool
    Guest

    Schmallenberg Update

    Knowledge and information about the disease is beginning to evolve.
    It MAY NOT be as bad for the sheep industry as has been hyped up by the media. However for some individuals it has been a very distressing and costly in extra time involved in lambing sheep with deformed lambs and the consequential loss in production.

    I would qualify anything I say with the caveat that there is still much not known.

    What is interesting is that so far almost everyone in my area who has lambed in February has seen instances of the effect of the disease. The numbers of lambs affected ranges from 2% - 20%.
    However there may be some room for optimism for those lambing in March, providing the sheep have remained in the same geographical area since tupping.
    Flocks that have started lambing in the last few days do not appear to be infected, or if they were it was outside of the critical time.

    The critical time for an ewe is between 28 and 56 days of pregnancy, on testing work done so far on calves the virus is relatively short lived before they develop antibodies, up to 5 days.

    I believe in this area we had a massive influx of European Midges that arrived in September and proceeded to infect all of the animals. (There is anecdotal evidence of some unexplained deaths in livestock around that time which was put down to Pasturella!)

    However while I am trying to be upbeat about this area, I have some less good news for others.
    My neighbour who has been particularly badly affected during February has also a March lambing flock, these were away wintered in Dorset and he was hoping that they would not be infected in the same way as those in East Sussex. Unfortunately they have the same problems with a very high number of deformities at the present time.
    He sent off material to the VLA and on speaking to them about where the sheep were wintered as to whether they wanted the Holding number, the reply was "do not bother it is everywhere"!

    Another reason to be optimistic was in another flock that was all run together last Autumn, they saw no problems in the first week of lambing, very high deformities in the second week and none in the third. This would seem to back up the science.

    The problems caused by this virus would appear to be solely down to timing and when it passes through the ewes or cows. There is also some evidence that areas with a low number of Midges have also escaped.

    I should qualify that in calving cows it is still too early to know the effects and consequences as it will be late March onwards if the scientists are correct about the timing.

    There is no doubt that the infected Midges moved northwards and westwards, how far and at what time they got there we still have to wait and see. All talk of banning movements of livestock especially into Scotland was a little irrelevant!

    The other "good" news is that after an animal has been infected it appears to have antibodies and will not get the disease again, how long this will last is not yet known.
    It may be better to ensure all animals are infected this summer when not first pregnant to ensure they are immune in the future. Someone suggested that this would be like having Measles parties!

  2. #2
    andybk
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    thanks for the detailed reply Frank , very informative , there seems to be a small window of infectivity , presumably your friends flock were infected before they went away to dorset .

    the only problem is infecting naive stock , as you need the infective midges to be circulating . unless it over-winters which will mean a ticking bomb for next years lambs .

  3. #3
    llamedos
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    from this mornings pro-med

    Schmallenberg virus [SBV] is likely to be around for at least another year and could spread much further across the UK, a leading animal disease expert has warned.

    At a briefing in London on Thursday [1 Mar 2012], scientists outlined
    2 extreme scenarios for where disease could go from here.

    It is possible, according to Professor Peter Mertens from the Institute of Animal Health, under one scenario Schmallenberg may burn out given the current high levels of infection and the fact infected animals become immune to the virus.

    However, he said that was probably "too good to be true" and the major concern for farmers will come when the midge season starts again in the UK later this spring [2012].

    If infected midges have over-wintered or if midges pick up the virus from animals in the UK, Schmallenberg could start spreading across the country.

    "This virus has the potential to spread across the whole country,"
    Prof Mertens said.

    He also warned cattle farmers that evidence from mainland European countries showed the number of cases in calves from cows infected last year [2011] was increasing, whereas infections in sheep were decreasing. This was attributed to the cows longer gestation period compared to sheep [see comment].

    Professor Wim Van Der Pol from the Central Veterinary Institute in Wageningen UR in the Netherlands said research conducted there showed it was very unlikely that the virus could infect humans.

    [Byline: Alistair Driver]

    --
    Communicated by:
    ProMED-mail <promed@promedmail.org>

    [Prof Mertens' warning concerning possibility of increased SBV impact in cattle deserves attention. In the Netherlands, the number of affected cattle holdings increased from 2 to 31 within one month; a similar trend has been reported from Germany and Belgium (see figures in final commentary further).

    If SBV dynamics are similar to those of Akabane virus, another teratogenic orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup closely related to SBV, then past observations may be predictive.

    During a major Akabane epizootic in Israel, 1969/1970, the following observations were made:

    In cattle:
    1. Arthrogryposis was caused by infection during the 4th to 6th month of pregnancy (mean gestation period in cattle is 280 days).
    2. CNS involvement (predominantly hydranencephaly) was caused by infection during the 3rd month of pregnancy.
    3. Most affected calves were affected by one of the above phenomena and not by both.
    4. Among abnormal calves, males outnumbered females to a significant degree.

    In sheep and goats:
    1. The agent caused abortions.
    2. There was less distinction between Arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly; many newborns suffered from both.
    3. The damage was mainly caused during the period between 30-50 days of pregnancy. Practically no damage was caused in fetuses which were older than 50 days during the viraemia.
    4. In badly affected flocks, up to 50 percent of all lambs and kids were affected.
    5. No clinical symptoms were seen in pregnant animals.
    6. Males, twins, and goats were more affected than females, singles, and sheep. - Mod.AS]

    ******
    [2] Vaccine and serology needs
    Date: Wed 29 Feb 2012
    Source: New Scientist [edited]
    <http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21529>


    A deadly, previously unknown virus that triggers abortions in sheep, goats and cattle, is spreading around Europe, causing more trouble for the beleaguered livestock industry. But farmers may have a vaccine to fight it by next year.

    Virologists are meeting in Leylstad, the Netherlands this week to discuss Schmallenberg virus [SBV]. Three companies are already testing candidate vaccines. Normally, these would take years to come to market, but faster approval could stop the virus taking hold.

    Since SBV was identified in Germany last November [2011], it has caused a wave of sheep abortions across northern Europe and the UK and has now spread to Italy.

    The subgroup of the family to which the virus belongs includes Oropouche virus, which infects humans and is the 2nd-most common cause of fever in tropical South America after dengue. SBV's closest relatives, such as Akabane virus found in Japan, Australia and Israel, only infect ruminants, however, so it is thought unlikely to infect humans.

    The last animal virus to take Europe by surprise was bluetongue, which, like SBV, is spread by biting midges and which exploded in the same regions of Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium in 2007.
    Accelerated approval for a vaccine cleared bluetongue from Europe by 2010.

    A sense of urgency might also stop SBV from settling in. "All the tests required for licensing a vaccine would take 2 years," says Peter Mertens, head of insect-borne viruses at the Institute for Animal Health in Pirbright, UK. If governments lift the more onerous testing requirements, vaccines might be permitted after being given to animals and observed for long enough to see whether they are safe, induce effective antibodies, and prevent infection.

    In Lelystad, however, researchers will focus on better ways to detect antibodies to the virus, says Martin Beer of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute in Insel Riems, Germany, which 1st isolated the virus and proved its link to disease.

    Antibodies reveal which animals have been infected. Rapid tests in time for when midges return in spring will show where the virus spreads. An antibody test can also tell researchers when the virus has caused a fetus to be malformed, says Beer. Right now, that is not clear, because the virus itself has cleared by the time the animal is delivered. The tests will also prove which animals are safe for export.

    [Byline: Debora MacKenzie]

  4. #4
    Yale
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Thanks Llamedos.

  5. #5
    Frank_the_Wool
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by andybk View Post
    thanks for the detailed reply Frank , very informative , there seems to be a small window of infectivity , presumably your friends flock were infected before they went away to dorset .

    the only problem is infecting naive stock , as you need the infective midges to be circulating . unless it over-winters which will mean a ticking bomb for next years lambs .
    No the presumption is they became infected in Dorset.

    Sheep arrived in Dorset mid September, tupped early October. It is of course possible the rams brought the disease with them and the Midges spread it.

  6. #6
    onlyone gazza
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    just a thought fella's, i always thought that midges only live for a day,not 100% sure though ?
    if this is true, surely they wouldn't be alive long enough to cross the channel, never mind spread disease here.
    you are pretty knowledgeable on here so does someone know how long they do live?

  7. #7
    EJS
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    I thought that the virus only lasted a short time in the animal in which case a midge biting the sheep or cow in the spring could not 'catch' it and then transfer it. Just because the animal now produces antibodies against the virus does not mean it still has the virus circulating in its blood, can anyone clarify?

  8. #8
    le bon paysan
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by andybk View Post
    thanks for the detailed reply Frank , very informative , there seems to be a small window of infectivity , presumably your friends flock were infected before they went away to dorset .

    the only problem is infecting naive stock , as you need the infective midges to be circulating . unless it over-winters which will mean a ticking bomb for next years lambs .
    Bluetongue over winters, in that the midges survive untill it's warm enough to start circulating, so I would think it highly likely that Schmallenberg will.

  9. #9
    Greysides
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Very useful, thanks.

  10. #10
    Badshot
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    My first ones went for testing yesterday. Met a few at Detling who are sure they have had some but haven't had it confirmed.

  11. #11
    Greysides
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by EJS View Post
    I thought that the virus only lasted a short time in the animal in which case a midge biting the sheep or cow in the spring could not 'catch' it and then transfer it. Just because the animal now produces antibodies against the virus does not mean it still has the virus circulating in its blood, can anyone clarify?

    The virus is thought to be in the deformed calves/lambs but also in some of the normal calves/lambs born.

  12. #12
    Frank_the_Wool
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by Greysides View Post
    The virus is thought to be in the deformed calves/lambs but also in some of the normal calves/lambs born.
    The deformed lambs and calves are viraemic when born, fortunately most of them die almost immediately.
    It is essential that these are disposed of asap, preferably by incineration. Any for testing need to be placed in sealed plastic bags.

    Up to now, no healthy animals when born have been viraemic, even when one of a twin is affected and the other is healthy.

  13. #13
    Filthyfarmer
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by Frank_the_Wool View Post
    The deformed lambs and calves are viraemic when born, fortunately most of them die almost immediately.
    It is essential that these are disposed of asap, preferably by incineration. Any for testing need to be placed in sealed plastic bags.

    Up to now, no healthy animals when born have been viraemic, even when one of a twin is affected and the other is healthy.
    Thats answered my question, thank you.

    Twin lambed last night, 1st one out fine fit lamb, next one clasic SBV deformaties and went for testing this morning.
    Have not had result from one sent in on Tuesday but if both positive that will be around 1% if remaining 2/3rds lamb the same. I will except that gladly concidering what it could be.

  14. #14
    spin cycle
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    why is it logical that the midges moved northwards?????.....surely looking at the figures the midges probably came across to norfolk/ suffolk and then spread south and west????

  15. #15
    Frank_the_Wool
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by spin cycle View Post
    why is it logical that the midges moved northwards?????.....surely looking at the figures the midges probably came across to norfolk/ suffolk and then spread south and west????
    There is a map of where the plumes of Midges went between July and October. I believe the FG published it.
    Surveillance of the conditions that allow Midges to move across from Europe has continued since Bluetongue.

    This clearly shows that the Midges in the Southern counties would have come across from France and Belgium.
    We had a very mild late summer and autumn when there were frequent southerly winds.
    It is likely that with every new incursion there was a rapid increase in the infection.

  16. #16
    Greysides
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by Frank_the_Wool View Post

    Up to now, no healthy animals when born have been viraemic, even when one of a twin is affected and the other is healthy.

    Thanks for that comment Frank, it would be best for everyone for that to be the case.

    However it does leave me confused as this quote is from the EFSA document that llamedos linked to in the other Schmallenburg thread.

    http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/doc/241e.pdf

    SBV has been detected in malformed foetuses, stillborn or newborn lambs, calves and goat kids regularly born at term.
    Perhaps I'm mis-reading it?

  17. #17
    juggernaut
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    I think there have been none found viraemic in the UK yet, but have been in Europe?

  18. #18
    giles1
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Thought the reporting ref.this virus from ITV evening news on Tuesday I think it was,slightly hysterical,"no reports of humans having contracted it" sort of thing.I didn't think there was any need to report nothing,especially in view of past food scares history and the havoc they caused to farmers.But then I've still got hoggs to sell so am perhaps a little over sensitive.............

  19. #19
    spin cycle
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by Frank_the_Wool View Post
    There is a map of where the plumes of Midges went between July and October. I believe the FG published it.
    Surveillance of the conditions that allow Midges to move across from Europe has continued since Bluetongue.

    This clearly shows that the Midges in the Southern counties would have come across from France and Belgium.
    We had a very mild late summer and autumn when there were frequent southerly winds.
    It is likely that with every new incursion there was a rapid increase in the infection.
    using avlh figures ( sheep only) ...7/2/12 norfolk had11cases out of 32... 33% of cases ......2/3/12 norfolk has 14 out of 85..... 16% of cases...so in that period there have been 53 additional cases only 3 of which have been in norfolk.....all the additional cases have been south or west of the county. how does this infection pattern fit with midges arriving in the south east and spreading north???

  20. #20
    Frank_the_Wool
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by spin cycle View Post
    using avlh figures ( sheep only) ...7/2/12 norfolk had11cases out of 32... 33% of cases ......2/3/12 norfolk has 14 out of 85..... 16% of cases...so in that period there have been 53 additional cases only 3 of which have been in norfolk.....all the additional cases have been south or west of the county. how does this infection pattern fit with midges arriving in the south east and spreading north???
    There are now cases in Hertfordshire, Berkshire, Dorset, Gloucestershire and of course Cornwall to name a few of the new ones.
    Reporting is approx 10 days behind due to the length of time it takes to analyse the samples.
    This is also good news as it means that most of the animals in Norfolk were infected early on and so the later lambing flocks have not had any problems.
    Or no one has been lambing recently and may not start again until March!

  21. #21
    Blacksheep
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by Frank_the_Wool View Post
    Up to now, no healthy animals when born have been viraemic, even when one of a twin is affected and the other is healthy.
    Interesting that only one of a twin can be infected I would have assumed that all foetuses would be exposed to it if the ewe contracted it, and hence dismissed it as something to be considered if only one of a twin had a deformity.

    Our vets have said there are reports of suspected cases in Wales now, guess the next month will give a better picture of the spread.

  22. #22
    b slicker
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    http://www.microsofttranslator.com/B...aunhofer.de%2F

    Does anyone know anything about the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology?

    Is it near Schmallenberg?

  23. #23
    james_tbu
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    See
    http://www.ime.fraunhofer.de/en/contact.html
    At Schmallenberg (East of Cologne) Division Applied Ecology
    At Aachen (west of Cologne) Division Molecular Biology
    Also in USA and Chile


  24. #24
    NeilO
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by b slicker View Post
    http://www.microsofttranslator.com/B...aunhofer.de%2F

    Does anyone know anything about the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology?

    Is it near Schmallenberg?
    Are you trying to start off a conspiracy theory?

  25. #25
    Joules
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by NeilO View Post
    Are you trying to start off a conspiracy theory?
    Someone wrote into one of the papers mentioning this place, can't remember, was it the Telegraph, after all its coverage?

    Well, according to some nutter on the FWi forums, it's all down to radiation from the Japanese nuclear power station....

  26. #26
    stockslave
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Cases are soaring and four further counties are now affected:

    http://www.farmersguardian.com/four-.../45322.article

  27. #27
    b slicker
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by NeilO View Post
    Are you trying to start off a conspiracy theory?
    The last F&M outbreak was traced to Pirbright.

  28. #28
    Filthyfarmer
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Beggers belief how one lamb can be gossly deformed and its twin seems to be 100% ok?
    Pulled one out today that seemed to be a breech birth with its twin poking its front leg up the side as well. SBV didn't register as both the front and both back legs seemed normal and not fused at an angle as some have been.
    Eventually pulled it out and its backbone was fused in a tight U shape, they were its front and back legs sticking out.
    Sorting legs and heads out can be dificult enough without this.

  29. #29
    llamedos
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Quote Originally Posted by Filthyfarmer View Post
    Beggers belief how one lamb can be gossly deformed and its twin seems to be 100% ok?
    Pulled one out today that seemed to be a breech birth with its twin poking its front leg up the side as well. SBV didn't register as both the front and both back legs seemed normal and not fused at an angle as some have been.
    Eventually pulled it out and its backbone was fused in a tight U shape, they were its front and back legs sticking out.
    Sorting legs and heads out can be dificult enough without this.
    Sounds awful FF, easy for us to say, but keep yer chin up.

    Todays pro med
    SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS - EUROPE (24): UPDATE, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
    ************************************************** ****************
    A ProMED-mail post
    <http://www.promedmail.org>
    ProMED-mail is a program of the
    International Society for Infectious Diseases <http://www.isid.org>

    In this update:
    [1] UK update
    [2] Comment on SBV epidemiology
    [3] Germany, cattle, field observations, comment [4] Germany: serological tests in contact persons

    ******
    [1] UK update
    Date: Mon 5 Mar 2012
    Source: The Telegraph [edited]
    <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/9124445/Schmallenberg-cases-reach-121.html#disqus_thread>


    Schmallenberg virus [SBV] is spreading across Britain with 4 new counties affected
    ----------------------------------------------------------------
    The number of farms affected by the virus, that causes lambs to be born deformed, jumped by a 3rd over the weekend from 92 to 121. Devon, Dorset, Cambridgeshire, and Somerset, that all have a large amount of livestock, are the latest counties to be infected with the disease.

    It is thought the disease, that 1st emerged this summer in the German town of Schmallenberg, [has been] spread by midges that came across the channel. Midges are inactive at this time of year but the disease is only just emerging as animals give birth.

    The Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) found 113 cases in sheep and 8 in cattle. Goats are also affected [though no cases registered yet in UK] but no cases have been found in wild species of cloven hoofed animals such as deer.

    The largest number of cases have been reported in eastern counties -- Suffolk, Norfolk, East Sussex, and Kent -- but the disease has been found as far west as Cornwall.

    The increase in cases had been expected by the industry as lambing and calving gather pace.

    Little can be done to protect livestock beyond housing them inside [during the vector season], which reduces exposure to midges. Nets and insecticides have proven to be of little use.

    Reports so far suggest that on affected farms between 10 per cent and
    50 per cent of lambs are lost to the infection.

    A spokesman for the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs said it was vital that farmers continue to report any suspicions as soon as possible, to help gather information about progress and effects of the disease.

    SBV is not thought to be a threat to human health but could decimate the Britain's lamb and beef industry. It is hoped a vaccine will be developed in the next 2 years but in the meantime the farms affected will have to bear the losses of dead lambs.

    [byline: Louise Gray]

    --
    communicated by:
    ProMED-mail
    <promed@promedmail.org>

    [The Telegraph's reader "Don" has submitted the following corrective comment to the newspaper:

    '"The Schmallenberg virus is spreading across Britain" -- wrong. It is not spreading. It did spread last year. There are no midges active now. The birth defects that are seen now are the results of infection when the embryos were in the womb. Obviously the disease spread widely last summer and no symptoms at all were seen at that time. The defects seen now are the only signs of last summer's epidemic.'

    We fully agree. See also Dr Roeder's contribution (item 2, below). - Mod.AS]

    ******
    [2] Comment on SBV epidemiology
    Date: Sun 4 Mar 2012
    From: Peter Roeder [edited]
    <peter.roeder@taurusah.com>


    Subject: Epidemiology of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection
    ------------------------------------------------------------
    I am concerned that some reports in the media give an imprecise explanation of SBV epidemiology and tend to suggest that SBV is transmitting between lambs in affected flocks and spreading between flocks by this means; I would suggest that more needs to be done to ensure that the public is better informed on the epidemiology of this disease. I would also like to make some comments about Europe's vulnerability to virus invasions.

    As is common knowledge, the epidemiology of SBV infection seems to be similar to that of Akabane virus and other orthobunyaviruses of the Simbu Group which affect ruminants. Useful insights can be gained from a global view of Akabane disease over the last 40 years or so since its 1st description. Akabane virus infection is endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas. In these, susceptible ruminant species become infected at an early age when fed on by ubiquitous midge and mosquito vectors and develop a long-lasting protective immunity by the time of breeding; thus, congenital abnormalities are seldom seen in endemic areas even though cases can occur when naive, susceptible animals are introduced into such areas. Under favourable environmental conditions, the vectors (and hence the virus) may spread beyond their usual range, and outbreaks of congenital disease then occur in areas where the disease process has rarely, or never been experienced before.

    Essentially it is at the interface between free and endemic areas that severe outbreaks are to be expected. Acute infection following postnatal exposure, accompanied by unremarkable clinical signs, is usually not recognised to have occurred until malformed lambs and calves are born. By this time the virus is no longer present in either dam or offspring; antibodies disclose the presence of earlier infection. Akabane viruses vary in their virulence but only rarely has pathology been associated with post-natal infection (ref 1).

    Outbreaks at the interface tend to occur infrequently but are recognised to have occurred in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Israel, and Turkey (ref 1) and southern Africa to the north and south of the endemic zone. Repeated outbreaks in Turkey and Israel over the last 40 years indicate clearly that, at least from 1970 until 2010 or 2011, the eastern Mediterranean was situated at the interface between endemic and free areas.

    Now that a Simbu Group virus, like bluetongue viruses in 2006 to 2010, has made the leap northwards in Europe, and without understanding the determinants that favoured the change, it is impossible to predict what will happen next. Will the virus "burn out" and the earlier status be re-established (whatever that was); are we to see a permanent shift in the interface between endemic and free zones; or, alternatively, will the epidemic wave move on as vector range extends or previously free populations of vectors become infected for the 1st time? It has been reported that SBV is most closely related to Shamonda virus, one of a number of Simbu Group viruses detected in Nigeria in the 1960s. Having not been seen since, emergence of the virus in Japan in 2002 (ref 3) illustrated that we know little of the epidemiology of such potential pathogens. One thing is clear -- our vision of the threat posed by the presence of these viruses at the edge of Europe was too complacent by far.

    Several other viruses are in a similar situation to that of SBV and pose an immediate threat to the livestock of northern Europe. Not least of these are the orbiviruses causing epizootic haemorrhagic disease [EHD] of ruminants, African horse sickness [AHS], and equine encephalosis [EE]. Enhanced surveillance and applied research are surely essential at this time to prepare for the introduction of new vectorborne diseases which now seems inevitable.

    References
    1. Kono R, Hirata M, et al. Bovine epizootic encephalomyelitis caused by Akabane virus in southern Japan. BMC Veterinary Research 2008; 4:
    20.
    2. Taylor WP, Mellor PS. The distribution of Akabane virus in the Middle East. Epidemiol Infect. 1994; 113: 175-85.
    3. Yanase T, Maeda K, et al. The resurgence of Shamonda virus, an African Simbu group virus of the genus _Orthobunyavirus_, in Japan.
    Archives of Virology 2005; 150: 361-9.

    --
    Peter Roeder OBE, Hon FRCVS, PhD, MSc, BVetMed, MRCVS Taurus Animal Health Hampshire GU35 8SY UK <peter.roeder@taurusah.com>

    [The following passage, derived from chapter 2.9.1 of OIE's terrestrial manual which addresses Akabane and other bunyaviruses, falls in line with Dr Roeder's appreciated commentary and adds supportive background:

    "In endemic areas, antibody in the female animal prevents fetal infection, but Akabane virus is capable of establishing a long-term infection of the placenta in susceptible cattle and sheep. This takes place between 30 and 70 days gestation in the ewe and between 30 and
    150 days gestation in the cow. Akabane virus has a predilection for brain, spinal cord and muscle cells where non-inflammatory necrosis interferes with morphogenesis.

    "Akabane virus infection has been studied experimentally in sheep and goats with the production of arthrogryposis/hydroencephaly, kyphosis, scoliosis, micro- and porencephaly, stillbirths and abortions.

    "Experimental Akabane virus studies have been carried out in pregnant cattle and it was shown that the type of abnormality is dependent on the gestational age of the fetus with hydroencephaly seen at 76-104 days and arthrogryposis at 103-174 days gestation. This time differential in appearance of abnormalities is clearly seen in bovine fetuses, whereas in sheep with a shorter gestation period, brain and skeletal lesions appear concurrently in the same fetus. The sequence of events during an epizootic of Akabane virus-induced fetal loss are the birth of uncoordinated calves, followed by those with arthrogryposis and dysplastic muscle changes, and lastly those with hydrocephalus and other severe CNS lesions. These events may be preceded by stillbirths and abortions." (For additional data and references, see
    <http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.09.01_BUNYAVIRAL_DISEASES.pdf>)

    According to the said data, and provided SBV behaves similarly to its closely-related Akabane virus, increasing numbers of CNS-affected cattle may be anticipated during the coming 1 - 3 months. But see also item 3, below ... - Mod.AS]

    ******
    [3] Germany, cattle, field observations, comment
    Date: 4 Mar 2012
    Source: Warmwell.com - Schmallenberg virus news [edited] <http://www.warmwell.com/schmallenbergall.html>


    Important opinion from an experienced cattle farmer in Germany
    --------------------------------------------------------------
    Extract:
    "..Believe me, nothing can beat hands on examination and good experience.

    Just one example: Here they enter confirmed cases of SBV into the database without any information about breed, age or farming details so what information should the epidemiologists work with?

    In my opinion SBV is not new, has popped up the 1st time in 2007/2008 and then has been dormant until last year. The fact that dams of affected calves, at least in our region, are rather young (about 3 years, 1st-2nd calvers) while older cows produce healthy offspring should make everybody think. You won't find this information in the computers yet it could be of importance once data for the whole country could be compared."

    Nearly one and a half [thousand] farms are now affected throughout the European Union, with Germany the worst at present.

    --
    communicated by:
    ProMED-mail
    <promed@promedmail.org>

    [It would be interesting to note from informed sources in the Netherlands and Belgium (where at least 82 cattle farms with SBV-affected congenital malformed calves have already been recorded), if they observe an age distribution pattern which is similar to the one described above from (a region) in Germany, and if sheep -- older than 4 years -- have been affected. - Mod.AS]

    ******
    [4] Germany: serological tests in contact persons
    Date: Mon 5 Mar 2012
    Source: Robert Koch Institute (RKI), Germany - Current topics [German, transl Sabine Zentis, summarised, edited] <http://www.rki.de/cln_151/nn_197448/DE/Content/Forsch/Schmallenberg.html?__nnn=true>


    Information on Schmallenberg virus
    ----------------------------------
    ... From investigations in affected animals [carried out by FLI], in some animals virological tests indicated that certain tissues have a relatively high viral load. Virus was detected in placentas and birth fluids. Therefore people assisting animals during parturition are considered as coming more frequently into contact with the new virus.

    The new virus is similar to other viruses from the group of Orthobunyaviridae. Closely related viruses of the Simbu serogroup, known to infect cattle, don't have a zoonotic potential and don't pose a danger for humans. Therefore even if there is contact with animals infected with the SB, this is not regarded a risk for humans.

    So far the RKI has no information that humans have tested positive for the new virus. Nevertheless, when dealing with animals possibly infected, the general guidelines on hygiene and maternity regulations should be adhered to.

    Though, so far, there is no evidence of risk to humans, the RKI is conducting, as a precaution, screening of persons exposed to the virus to determine whether infection can occur in certain individuals.

    On 29 Feb 2012, during a meeting of sheep breeders in Northrhine-Westphalia whose animals had been affected by SBV, the RKI conducted a survey and took blood samples. The RKI has developed a blood test to detect the virus as well as antibodies in human blood.
    The sheep farmers in attendance supported the scientific research and a very high number, 61 sheep farmers, agreed to take part in the study.

    Interviews with farmers gave no indication that the virus might have caused disease in humans. The blood samples are currently tested at the RKI lab and only after analysing the samples reliable information will be made available.

    --
    communicated by:
    Sabine Zentis
    Castleview English Longhorns
    Gut Laach,
    D-52385 Nideggen
    Germany
    <www.cvlonghorns.de>

    [The results of the described RKI serological study in humans are anticipated with great interest.

    According to the most recent countries' updates, the total number of SBV-infected animal holdings which have been lab confirmed in Europe so far, is 1737: 190 cattle farms, 1495 sheep farms and 52 goat farms.
    Their details, per country, are the following:

    Country / last update /cattle / sheep / goats / total / map at

    1. Belgium / 5 Mar / 44 / 144 / 1 / 189 / <http://www.afsca.be/_pictures/users/schmallenberg_20120229.jpg>
    2. France / 2 Mar / 14 / 391 / 6 / 411 / Flutrackers map at <http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showpost.php?p=445058&postcount=118>
    3. Germany /6 Mar / 86 / 743 / 39 / 868 / <http://www.fli.bund.de/fileadmin/dam_uploads/tierseuchen/Schmallenberg_Virus/Karten/Map_Schmallenberg_20120306.jpg>
    4. Netherlands / 6 Mar / 38 / 101 / 5 / 144 / <http://www.vwa.nl/txmpub/files/?p_file_id=2201854>
    5. UK / 5 Mar / 8 / 113 / 0 / 121 / no updated map available; tabled locations as of 5 Mar 2012, available at <http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla/2012/03/05/5-march-schmallenberg-virus-further-updates-on-gb-testing-results/>.

    3 sheep holdings have, reportedly, been affected in Luxembourg (one of them a mixed sheep/goat farm); one single infected holding has been reported from northern Italy.

    EU's Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health (SCFCAH) is "Update and exchange of views on the Schmallenberg virus situation". (the other issues in section A of the meeting are "Information from The Netherlands on the outcome of the studies on Q fever" and "Bluetongue situation in the Member States"). Outcome of the meeting and presentations are anticipated with interest. - Mod.AS]

    [see also:
    Schmallenberg virus - Europe (23): update, international impact
    20120303.1059857
    Schmallenberg virus - Europe (22): update 20120301.1058045 Schmallenberg virus - Europe (21): Update 20120225.1052537 Schmallenberg virus - Europe (20): Italy, Luxembourg, OIE 20120220.1047263] .................................................a rn/ejp/sh
    *################################################# #########*
    ************************************************** **********
    ProMED-mail makes every effort to verify the reports that are posted, but the accuracy and completeness of the
    information, and of any statements or opinions based
    thereon, are not guaranteed. The reader assumes all risks in
    using information posted or archived by ProMED-mail. ISID
    and its associated service providers shall not be held responsible for errors or omissions or held liable for any damages incurred as a result of use or reliance upon posted or archived material.
    ************************************************** **********
    Donate to ProMED-mail. Details available at:
    <http://www.isid.org/ProMEDMail_Donations.shtml>
    ************************************************** **********
    Visit ProMED-mail's web site at <http://www.promedmail.org>.
    Send all items for posting to: promed@promedmail.org (NOT to an individual moderator). If you do not give your full name name and affiliation, it may not be posted. You may unsub- scribe at <http://www.isid.org/promedmail/subscribe.lasso>.
    For assistance from a human being, send mail to:
    <postmaster@promedmail.org>.
    ################################################## ##########
    ##########################

  30. #30
    Greysides
    Guest

    Re: Schmallenberg Update

    Thanks again, llamedos.

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •